The research findings indicate that raising cattle is fundamentally served two livelihood functions for smallholder farmers i.e. income generating and saving. Cattle as household assets/saving seem to be associated with holdings of small numbers of cattle and low experiences of raising cattle. With this livelihood function, low productivity and market outputs from these cattle smallholders are expected to be low. In contrast, smallholder farmers raising cattle for household income generation tend to hold high numbers of cattle. There is high potential for improving and developing smallholders’ cattle raising as their main livelihood activities.
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